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 RBJ Audio-EQ-CookbookType : EQ filter kookbookReferences : Posted by Robert Bristow-JohnsonLinked file : Audio-EQ-Cookbook.txtNotes : Equations for creating different equalization filters. see linked file

 CommentsAdded on : 30/08/06 by martin[ DOT ]eisenberg[ AT ]udo[ DOT ]eduComment : rbj writes with regard to shelving filters: > _or_ S, a "shelf slope" parameter (for shelving EQ only).  When S = 1, > the shelf slope is as steep as it can be and remain monotonically > increasing or decreasing gain with frequency.  The shelf slope, in > dB/octave, remains proportional to S for all other values for a > fixed f0/Fs and dBgain. The precise relation for both low and high shelf filters is   S = -s * log_2(10)/40 * sin(w0)/w0 * (A^2+1)/(A^2-1)    where s is the true shelf midpoint slope in dB/oct and w0, A are defined in the Cookbook just below the quoted paragraph. It's your responsibility to keep the overshoots in check by using sensible s values. Also make sure that s has the right sign -- negative for low boost or high cut, positive otherwise. To find the relation I first differentiated the dB magnitude response of the general transfer function in eq. 1 with regard to log frequency, inserted the low shelf coefficient expressions, and evaluated at w0. Second, I equated this derivative to s and solved for alpha. Third, I equated the result to rbj's expression for alpha and solved for S yielding the above formula. Finally I checked it with the high shelf filter.Added on : 31/08/06 by martin[ DOT ]eisenberg[ AT ]udo[ DOT ]eduComment : Sorry, a slight correction: rewrite the formula as   S = s * log_2(10)/40 * sin(w0)/w0 * (A^2+1)/abs(A^2-1) nad make s always positive.Added on : 05/10/13 by mbjoker65[ AT ]gmail[ DOT ]comComment : This is a very famous article. I saw many are asking what is the relationship between "Q" and the resonance in low-pass and hi-pass filters. By experimenting, I found that Q should always be >= 1/2. Value < 1/2 seems to alter f0 "wherever it's happenin', man", cutting off frequencies not where it was planned. In fact Q = 1/2 is the value for which H(s) = 1 / (s^2 + s/Q + 1) gets two poles, real and coincident. In other words the filter becomes like two 1st order filters in cascade, with no resonance at all. When Q tends to infinite the poles get close to the unit circle, the gain around the cutoff frequency increases, creating resonance.

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